Date of filling in this questionnaire or last update: 04/09/2020
Cohort name
  Swiss National Cohort (SNC)

  • Switzerland

  Prof. Matthias Egger
  Institut für Sozial- und Präventivmedizin
Do you want to add another Principal Investigator of the Cohort

  • Add another Principal Investigator of the cohort

  Prof. Milo Puhan
  Institut für Sozial- und Präventivmedizin
Do you want to add another Principal Investigator of the Cohort

  • Add another Principal Investigator of the cohort

  Dr. Matthias Bopp
  Institut für Epidemiologie, Biostatistik und Prävention


Name of committee
  Cantonal ethics boards of Bern and Zurich
Or provide website


Data access policy (briefly describe)
Main aim of cohort, please briefly describe the main objectives of the cohort
  The Swiss National Cohort (SNC) is a long-term, population based multipurpose cohort and research platform. The current version of the SNC is based on census data from 1990 and 2000 that were linked to mortality, life birth and emigration records until 2018, and to the newly introduced Registry Based Census (RBC) and annual structural surveys from 2010 onward. The SNC enables research in a wide range of Public Health subjects, in particular in combination with other longitudinal or environmental data. The Swiss National Cohort is a collaboration of the Public Health institutes in Basel, Bern, Geneva, Lausanne and Zürich. The SNC is funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF).
Study design (please select as many as appropriate)

  • Retrospective cohort
  • Other

Source population (please select as many as appropriate)

  • General population: National

Comparators (please select as many as appropriate)

  • Internal study population

Inclusion criteria
  census-based cohort
Age range at entry (main cohort)

Minimum Maximum Mean
0 >100

Participation rate at enrollment (if known)
  Mandatory participation, thus 98.6% in 2000 (Renaud 2004).

Renaud A. 2004. Coverage Estimation for the Swiss Population Census 2000: Estimation Methodology and Results. Neuchâtel, Switzerland: Swiss Federal Statistical Office.
Bopp M, Spoerri A, Zwahlen M, Gutzwiller F, Paccaud F, Braun-Fahrlaender C et al. Cohort Profile: The Swiss National Cohort–a longitudinal study of 6.8 million people. Int J Epidemiol 2009;38:379-84.

Type of data for outcome follow-up (please select as many as appropriate)

  • Use of registers (specify)

Specify: Use of registers

  • Mortality registry

First follow-up period (provide year)
Last follow-up period (provide year)
Number of follow-ups after baseline (provide number)
Participation at last follow-up (if known)
  99 is a guess. Mandatory participation, thus near complete
Occupational history/time frame
  Follow-up period
Occupational coding performed
Occupation (specify coding system used)

  • Swiss Standard Classification of Occupations 2000 (SSCO/SBN 2000)
  • ISCO88

  Occupational and environmental exposure data not included in main SNC files, though linkages are possible (via occupational code, or location/spatial linkage).
Baseline - type of outcome data collected (select more than one if applicable)

  • Registry-based


  • Mortality register

Follow-up - type of outcome data collected (select more than one if applicable)

  • Registry-based


  • Mortality register

Outcome type (please select as many as appropriate)

  • Mortality

Diagnostic groups based on ICD10

  • A Bacterial infectious disease, type of microorganisms*
  • B Viral infections, type of microorganisms*
  • B99 Other and unspecified infectious diseases, type of microorganisms*
  • C + D Neoplasms
  • D Diseases of blood and blood-forming organs excl. leukemia
  • E Endocrinological disease
  • E Malnutrition and obesity
  • E Metabolism disease
  • F Mental disorders
  • G Disease in the nervous system
  • H Disorders of the eye
  • H Disorders of the ear
  • I Heart disease
  • I Cerebrovascular diseases
  • J Respiratory disease
  • K Diseases of oral cavity, salivary glands and jaws
  • K Diseases of oesophagus, stomach, duodenum and appendix
  • K Hernia, colon and intestine disease
  • K Diseases of peritoneum, liver
  • L Skin, nail and hair disorders
  • M Arthritis, arthrosis, systemic connective disorders, spine disorders
  • M Disorders of muscles, bones, synovialis, bursa, cartilage
  • N Kidney, renal pelvis disease
  • N Male and female related disorders
  • O+P Pregnancy and labour
  • Q After birth – child disorders
  • S Injuries

A Bacterial infectious disease, type of microorganisms*

  • Anasakis
  • Bartonella
  • Bordetella pertussis
  • Borrelia
  • Brucella
  • Campylobacter
  • Coxiella
  • Clostridium tetani
  • Clostridium difficile
  • Francisella tularensis
  • Helicobacter pylori
  • Legionella
  • Leishmania
  • Leptospira
  • Mycobacterium bovis
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  • Neisseria meningitides
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Rickettsia
  • Salmonella
  • Shigella
  • Staphylococcus
  • Streptococcus
  • Toxocara
  • Toxoplasma gondii
  • Trachomatis
  • Treponema pallidum
  • Trichomonas vaginalis

B Viral infections, type of microorganisms

  • Cytomegalovirus
  • Hantavirus
  • Hepatitis (A,B,C,E)
  • HIV virus
  • Human herpes virus
  • Human papilloma virus
  • Human T-lymphotrophic virus
  • Influenza virus
  • Measles virus
  • Monkey pox virus
  • Mumps virus
  • Parvovirus
  • Rhinovirus
  • Rubella virus
  • Tick-borne encephalitis virus
  • Varicella zoster virus
  • West Nile virus
  • SARS coronavirus

B99 Other and unspecified infectious diseases, type of microorganisms

  • Giardia lamblia
  • Chlamydia

C + D Neoplasms

  • Benign neoplasm
  • Carcinoma in situ
  • Leukemia
  • Malignant neoplasms gastro intes. system including liver, gall bladder, pancreas
  • Malignant neoplasm lung
  • Mesothelioma
  • Other malignant neoplasm of respiratory and intrathoracic organs, heart, pleura
  • Malignant neoplasm of bone and articular cartilage
  • Melanoma and other malignant neoplasms of skin
  • Neoplasms connective and soft tissue including nerves
  • Malignant neoplasm of breast
  • Malignant neoplasms, females gynecological
  • Malignant neoplasms of male genital organs
  • Malignant neoplasm of urinary tract and kidney
  • Malignant neoplasms of eye, brain and other parts of central nervous system
  • Malignant neoplasms of thyroid and other endocrine glands
  • Malignant neoplasms of ill-defined, secondary and unspecified sites
  • Malignant neoplasm without specification of site including excl. leukemia

D Diseases of blood and blood-forming organs excl. leukemia

  • Diseases of spleen
  • Polycythaemia vera
  • Myelodysplastic syndromes
  • Essential (haemorrhagic) thrombocythaemia
  • Other neoplasms of uncertain or unknown behaviour of lymphoid, haematopoietic and related tissue
  • Iron deficiency
  • Vitamin deficiency
  • Aplastic and other anemias
  • Acquired haemolytic anaemia
  • Enzyme disorders including Thalassaemia and Sickle-cell disorders
  • Other anaemias
  • Anaemia, unspecified
  • Coagulation defects
  • Purpura and other haemorrhagic conditions
  • Other diseases of blood and blood-forming organs
  • Immunodeficiency
  • Sarcoidosis

E Endocrinological disease

  • Thyroidea
  • Parathyroidea
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Pituitary
  • Other endocrinological disease
  • Adrenogenital disorders
  • Testicular dysfunction

E Malnutrition and obesity

  • Vitamin A deficiency
  • Thiamine deficiency
  • Deficiency of other B group vitamins
  • Vitamin D deficiency
  • Deficiency of vitamin E
  • Deficiency of vitamin K
  • Vitamin deficiency, unspecified
  • Calcium deficiency
  • Deficiency of other nutrient elements

E Metabolism disease

  • Disorder of amino-acid metabolism, unspecified
  • Lactose intolerance
  • Disorders of sphingolipid metabolism and other lipid storage disorders
  • Disorders of glycosaminoglycan and glucoprotein metabolism metabolism
  • Disorders of lipoprotein metabolism and other lipidaemias
  • Hypercholesterolemia
  • Disorders of purine and pyrimidine metabolism
  • Disorders of porphyrin and bilirubin metabolism
  • Disorders of mineral metabolism
  • Cystic fibrosis

F Mental disorders

  • Dementia
  • Personality and behavioural disorders
  • Schizophrenia
  • Mood [affective] disorders
  • Depression
  • Eating disorders
  • Mental retardation
  • Disorders of psychological development including autism and Aspergers syndrome
  • Other mental disorder, not otherwise specified

G Disease in the nervous system

  • Infectious diseases of the central nervous system
  • Non-infectious encephalitis, myelitis and encephalomyelitis
  • Intracranial and intraspinal abscess and granuloma
  • Systemic atrophies primarily affecting the central nervous system including
  • Huntington's disease and Hereditary ataxia
  • Spinal muscular atrophy and related syndromes
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Dystonia
  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Other degenerative disorders of nervous system in diseases classified elsewhere
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Epilepsy
  • Migraine
  • Sleep disorders
  • Facial nerve disorders
  • Disorders of other cranial nerves
  • Nerve root and plexus disorders
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome
  • Lesion of ulnar nerve
  • Lesion of radial nerve
  • Other mononeuropathies
  • Polyneuropathies and other disorders of the peripheral nervous system
  • Myasthenia gravis and other myoneural disorders
  • Muscular dystrophy
  • Muscular myopathy
  • Cerebral palsy and other paralytic syndromes
  • Toxic encephalopathy
  • Hydrocephalus

H Disorders of the eye

  • Disorders of eyelid
  • Xanthelasma of eyelid
  • Disorders of lachrymal system
  • Disorders of orbit
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Disorders of sclera
  • Disorders of cornea
  • Iridocyclitis
  • Senile cataract
  • Other cataract
  • Other disorders of lens
  • Retinal disorders
  • Glaucoma
  • Other disorders of vitreous body and globe in diseases classified elsewhere
  • Disorders of optic nerve and visual pathways
  • Disorders of ocular muscles, binocular movement, accommodation and refraction
  • Visual disturbances and blindness

H Disorders of the ear

  • Diseases of middle ear and mastoid
  • Diseases of inner ear

I Heart disease

  • Rheumatic heart disease, unspecified
  • Hypertensive diseases
  • Angina pectoris
  • Acute myocardial infarction
  • Atrial septal defect
  • Chronic ischaemic heart disease
  • Pulmonary embolism
  • Other pulmonary heart diseases
  • Nonrheumatic mitral valve disorders
  • Pulmonary valve disorders
  • Endocarditis
  • Myocarditis
  • Cardiomyopathy
  • Atrioventricular arrhythmia
  • Heart failure

I Cerebrovascular diseases

  • Subarachnoid haemorrhage
  • Intracerebral haemorrhage
  • Cerebral infarction
  • Stroke, not specified as haemorrhage or infarction
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Aneurysm and dissection
  • Raynaud's syndrome
  • Thromboangiitis obliterans [Buerger]
  • Arterial embolism and thrombosis
  • Phlebitis and thrombophlebitis
  • Haemorrhoids
  • Oesophageal varices
  • Varicose veins of other sites
  • Lymphadenitis
  • Hypotension

J Respiratory disease

  • Acute upper respiratory infections of multiple and unspecified sites
  • Influenza
  • Viral pneumonia
  • Bacterial pneumonia
  • Pneumonia due to other infectious organisms, not elsewhere classified
  • Abscess of lung and mediastinum
  • Pyothorax
  • Acute bronchitis
  • Acute bronchiolitis
  • Vasomotor and allergic rhinitis
  • Chronic rhinitis, nasopharyngitis and pharyngitis
  • Chronic sinusitis
  • Nasal polyp
  • Chronic diseases of tonsils and adenoids
  • Diseases of vocal cords and larynx, not elsewhere classified
  • Chronic Bronchitis
  • Emphysema
  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  • Asthma
  • Byssinosis
  • Bronchiectasis
  • Pneumoconiosis
  • Hypersensitivity pneumonitis due to organic dust
  • Other interstitial lung disease
  • Adult respiratory distress syndrome
  • Pulmonary edema
  • Pneumothorax
  • Respiratory failure, not elsewhere classified

K Diseases of oral cavity, salivary glands and jaws

  • Dental caries
  • Gingivitis and periodontal diseases
  • Dentofacial anomalies [including malocclusion]
  • Stomatitis and related lesions
  • Diseases of tongue

K Diseases of oesophagus, stomach, duodenum and appendix

  • Oesophagitis
  • Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease
  • Other diseases of oesophagus
  • Gastric ulcer
  • Duodenal ulcer
  • Peptic ulcer, site unspecified
  • Gastrojejunal ulcer
  • Gastritis and duodenitis
  • Dyspepsia

K Hernia, colon and intestine disease

  • Hernia
  • Crohn's disease
  • Ulcerative colitis
  • Other non-infective gastro-enteritis and colitis
  • Vascular disorders of intestine
  • Paralytic ileus and intestinal obstruction without hernia
  • Diverticular disease of intestine
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Fissure and fistula of anal and rectal regions
  • Abscess of anal and rectal regions
  • Intestinal malabsorption

K Diseases of peritoneum, liver

  • Peritonitis
  • Alcoholic liver disease
  • Toxic liver disease
  • Chronic hepatitis
  • Fibrosis and cirrhosis of liver
  • Cholelithiasis/Cholecystitis
  • Acute pancreatitis

L Skin, nail and hair disorders

  • Infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue
  • Bullous disorders
  • Atopic dermatitis
  • Allergic contact dermatitis
  • Irritant contact dermatitis
  • Dermatitis due to substances taken internally
  • Pruritus
  • Psoriasis/Parapsoriasis
  • Urticaria
  • Erythema nodosum
  • Sunburn
  • Nail disorders
  • Alopecia areata
  • Hypertrichosis
  • Acne
  • Vitiligo

M Arthritis, arthrosis, systemic connective disorders, spine disorders

  • Bacterial arthritis
  • Reactive arthritis
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Juvenile arthritis
  • Gout
  • Other arthritis
  • Polyarthrosis
  • Coxarthrosis
  • Gonarthrosis [arthrosis of knee]
  • Arthrosis of first carpometacarpal joint
  • Other arthrosis
  • Deformities of fingers and toes
  • Deformities of limbs
  • Deformities of spine including scoliosis
  • Disorders of patella
  • Internal derangement of knee
  • Pathological dislocation and subluxation of joint
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Systemic sclerosis
  • Polymyalgia rheumatic
  • Other systemic involvement of connective tissue
  • Spine disk disorders
  • Lumbago with sciatica
  • Low back pain

M Disorders of muscles, bones, synovialis, bursa, cartilage

  • Myositis
  • Calcification and ossification of muscle
  • Contracture of muscle
  • Chronic crepitant synovitis of hand and wrist
  • Bursitis of hand
  • Olecranon bursitis
  • Prepatellar bursitis
  • Other bursitis
  • Rotator cuff syndrome
  • Bicipital tendinitis
  • Calcific tendinitis of shoulder
  • Impingement syndrome of shoulder
  • Medial epicondylitis
  • Lateral epicondylitis
  • Other Synovitis and tenosynovitis
  • Osteoporosis
  • Osteomalacia
  • Skeletal fluorosis
  • Osteomyelitis - Osteonecrosis
  • Chondropathies

N Kidney, renal pelvis disease

  • Glomerular diseases
  • Renal tubulo-interstitial diseases
  • Obstructive and reflux uropathy
  • Nephropathy
  • Renal failure
  • Urolithiasis
  • Cystitis
  • Urethral stricture

N Male and female related disorders

  • Hyperplasia of prostate
  • Other disorders of prostate
  • Torsion of testis
  • Orchitis and epididymitis
  • Male infertility
  • Disorders of penis
  • Other disorders of male genital organs
  • Benign mammary dysplasia
  • Salpingitis and oophoritis
  • Inflammatory disease of uterus
  • Inflammatory disease of cervix uteri
  • Female pelvic inflammatory disease, unspecified
  • Inflammation of vagina and vulva
  • Endometriosis
  • Other disorders of female genital and reproductive organs
  • Abnormal menstrual cycle
  • Female infertility
  • In vitro fertilisation
  • Spontaneous abortion
  • Molar pregnancy
  • Elective abortion

O+P Pregnancy and labour

  • Oedema, proteinuria and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium
  • Eclampsia in pregnancy, labour or puerperium
  • Excessive vomiting in pregnancy
  • Venous complications in pregnancy
  • Infections of genito-urinary tract in pregnancy
  • Diabetes mellitus in pregnancy
  • Malnutrition in pregnancy
  • Other specified pregnancy-related conditions
  • Complications of labour and delivery
  • Preterm delivery
  • Extremely low birth weight
  • Other low birth weight
  • Exceptionally large baby
  • Birth trauma
  • Congenital viral diseases
  • Foetal death of unspecified cause

Q After birth – child disorders

  • Congenital malformations of the nervous system incl. the brain
  • Congenital malformations of the circulatory system
  • Congenital malformations of the respiratory system
  • Cleft lip and cleft palate
  • Congenital malformations of digestive system
  • Congenital malformations of genital organs
  • Congenital malformations of the urinary system
  • Congenital malformations and deformations of the musculoskeletal system
  • Down's syndrome
  • Turner's syndrome
  • Klinefelter's syndrome

S Injuries

  • Injuries to the head
  • Injuries to the thorax
  • Injuries to the abdomen, lower back, lumbar spine and pelvis
  • Injuries to the shoulder, arm and fingers
  • Injuries to the hip and thigh
  • Injuries to the knee and lower leg, ankle and foot

6. Other Information

  • Demographics
  • Education
  • Residential history
  • Socioeconomic status