Cohort name
  • Denmark
  • Finland
  • Iceland
  • Norway
  • Sweden
Please provide any other information on the cohort location/s if needed
  Nordic countries
  Sanna Heikkinen
  Finnish Cancer Registry
Do you want to add another Principal Investigator of the Cohort
  • Add another Principal Investigator of the cohort
  Ingrid Sivesind Mehlum
Do you want to add another Principal Investigator of the Cohort
  • Add another Principal Investigator of the cohort
  Johnni Hansen
  Danish Cancer Society
  • https://astra.cancer.fi/NOCCA/
Name of committee
  According to national regulations
Upload files
Or provide website
  • Other publications: https://astra.cancer.fi/NOCCA/studies.html
Contact Principal Investigator (name)
  Sanna Heikkinen
Data access policy (briefly describe)
  Principles for use of data from NOCCA All external suggestions for topics of analysis / specific papers shall be handed to NOCCA principle investigator (PI) of any Nordic country, in the form of a short study application, as specified below. If the application is formally acceptable, it will be distributed to all other PIs of the Nordic countries. If the study requires use of the NOCCA Job Exposure Matrix, the application will also be forwarded to the NOCCA JEM Team. If the suggested topic has not been assigned to some other persons, and if the PIs judge that the proposed study is feasible and worth doing, the data can be used by the applicant inside or outside the NOCCA group upon signature of a data transfer agreement, to be signed by each national PI. Each country is free to opt out of any study. The short research protocol should include: The hypothesis and specific aims of the study, The list of variables to be used, The analytical strategy (analysis plan), The persons responsible for data management, data analysis and other tasks related to the preparation of the manuscript, Timetable for use of the data (after which the access to the data will no longer be allowed and the research topic may be transferred to some other research team; the timeline is important to guarantee that important study topics will really be progressing) a publication plan, including proposed authors and order of authors The costs of the study and the provenience of funds to cover the study costs, Possible conflicts of interest related to the person/group requesting the use of the data (for example affiliation with or funding received from specific industries for the specific study or other related topics). Please note that costs to cover the data management and preparation may be charged to the individual/group requesting use of the data. At least one representative of each participating country should be included in the publications. If the study requires use of the NOCCA Job Exposure Matrix, at least one of the JEM Team should be on the list of authors. If separate permissions by ethical or data inspection board need to updated for a specific article, they are under responsibility of the applicant in collaboration with the country NOCCA PI.
Is this cohort part of a consortium? (name consortium)
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Participation in pooled analyses
  • The cohort is potentially interested in participating in pooled analyses of (European) occupational cohort studies (note pooled analyses also includes remote decentralized analyses that would not require any transfer of primary data as well as meta-analyses).
Main aim of cohort, please briefly describe the main objectives of the cohort
  To present up to 60 years of cancer incidence data by occupational category for the Nordic populations. Further studies will focus on associations between specific work-related factors and well-defined cancer diseases with the aim to identify exposure-response patterns. In addition to the cancer data demonstrated in the incidence publication, the NOCCA project produces a Nordic Job Exposure Matrix (JEM) that transforms information about occupational title histories to quantitative estimates of specific exposures. The third essential component is methodological development targeted at better interpretation of results based on averaged information of exposures and co-factors in the occupational categories.
Study design (please select as many as appropriate)
  • Prospective cohort
  • Retrospective cohort
  • Nested case-control / Case-cohort
Source population (please select as many as appropriate)
  • General population: International
  • General population: National
  • Generation (parents-children) study
Comparators (please select as many as appropriate)
  • Internal study population
  • External study population (includes SMR/SIR studies)
Inclusion criteria
  Entire population at working age
Exclusion criteria
Age range at entry (main cohort)
Minimum Maximum Mean
30 64
Men at enrollment
  15 000 000
Women at enrollment
  15 000 000
Children (<18 years) at enrollment
Participation rate at enrollment (if known)
Type of data for outcome follow-up (please select as many as appropriate)
  • Disease incidence records
  • Use of registers (specify)
Disease incidence records (specify)
  • Cancer registries
Specify: Use of registers
  • Information on incident cancers from the cancer registries
First follow-up period (provide year)
Last follow-up period (provide year)
Number of follow-ups after baseline (provide number)
  Continuous follow-up
Source of exposure data collected (please select as many as appropriate)
  • Questionnaire, Personal (Self-reporting or interview)
  • Job-employment records
  • Registry-based
Occupational history/time frame
Occupational coding performed
Occupation (specify coding system used)
  • NYK (based on ISCO 58), ISCO 88, ISCO 08
Methods for exposure assessment (please select as many as appropriate)
  • Job Exposure Matrix
Please insert reference/further information
  Kauppinen T, Uuksulainen S, Saalo A, Mäkinen I, Pukkala E. Use of the Finnish Information System on Occupational Exposure (FINJEM) in epidemiologic, surveillance, and other applications. Ann Occup Hyg. 2014 Apr;58(3):380-96. doi: 10.1093/annhyg/met074. Epub 2014 Jan 8. PMID: 24401793.
Please insert reference/further information
  Kauppinen T, Heikkilä P, Plato N, Woldbaek T, Lenvik K, Hansen J, Kristjansson V, Pukkala E. Construction of job-exposure matrices for the Nordic Occupational Cancer Study (NOCCA). Acta Oncol. 2009;48(5):791-800. doi: 10.1080/02841860902718747. PMID: 19225948.
Main categories
  • Dusts and fibres
  • Solvents
  • Pesticides
  • Metals and metal oxides
  • Other chemicals
  • Engineered nanoparticles
  • Biological factors
  • Physical agents
  • Ergonomics, physical workload, and injury related
  • Psychosocial domains
Dusts and fibres | Fibres
  • Asbestos (any form of asbestos chrysotile, crocidolite, tremolite, anthophyllite, etc. or asbestos-containing material)
Dusts and fibres | Inorganic dusts
  • Quartz (quartz or crystalline silica containing dusts)
Dusts and fibres | Organic dusts
  • Animal dust (from living animals or hairs of animals, e.g. raw wool, furs of minks, etc.)
  • Flour dust
  • Wood dust (not specified)
Solvents | Aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbon solvents
  • Gasoline
  • Other (specify)
Solvents | Aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbon solvents | Specify: Other
  Not specified
Solvents | Aromatic hydrocarbon solvents
  • Benzene
  • Styrene and styrene oxide
  • Toluene
  • Other (specify)
Solvents | Aromatic hydrocarbon solvents | Specify: Other
  Not specified
Solvents | Chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents
  • Methylene chloride
  • Perchloroethylene
  • Trichloroethanes
  • Trichloroethylene
Solvents | Organic solvents, other than aliphatic, aromatic and chlorinated
  • Formaldehyde
Metals and metal oxides
  • Chromium (metallic chromium, Cr(iii), Cr(vi) and all compounds)
  • Iron (metallic iron and all compounds)
  • Lead and all compounds
  • Nickel and all compounds
Other chemicals | Engine exhaust
  • Diesel engine exhaust
Other chemicals | Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)
  • Benzo(a)pyrene
  • Bitumen fumes
Other chemicals | Sulphur compounds, volatile
  • Sulphur dioxide and sulphur trioxide
Other chemicals | Welding fumes
  • Welding fumes, not specified
Engineered nanoparticles
  • Other (specify)
Engineered nanoparticles | Specify: Other
  Not specified
Physical agents
  • Light-at-night (LAN)
  • Noise
  • Radiation
Physical agents | Radiation
  • Ionising
  • Solar and ultraviolet
  • Other
Specify: Other
Ergonomics, physical workload, and injury related
  • Physical work load (e.g. heavy lifting of people or objects, pushing/pulling)
  • Sedentary work
  Other exposure categories have been added to NOCCA-JEM and can be included if needed (e.g. some lifestyle factors at an aggregate level).
Baseline - type of outcome data collected (select more than one if applicable)
  • Registry-based
  • Cancer incidence
Follow-up - type of outcome data collected (select more than one if applicable)
  • Registry-based
  • Cancer incidence
Outcome type (please select as many as appropriate)
  • Morbidity
Diagnostic groups based on ICD10
  • C + D Neoplasms
C + D Neoplasms
  • Benign neoplasm
  • Carcinoma in situ
  • Leukemia
  • Malignant neoplasms gastro intes. system including liver, gall bladder, pancreas
  • Malignant neoplasm lung
  • Mesothelioma
  • Other malignant neoplasm of respiratory and intrathoracic organs, heart, pleura
  • Malignant neoplasm of bone and articular cartilage
  • Melanoma and other malignant neoplasms of skin
  • Neoplasms connective and soft tissue including nerves
  • Malignant neoplasm of breast
  • Malignant neoplasms, females gynecological
  • Malignant neoplasms of male genital organs
  • Malignant neoplasm of urinary tract and kidney
  • Malignant neoplasms of eye, brain and other parts of central nervous system
  • Malignant neoplasms of thyroid and other endocrine glands
  • Malignant neoplasms of ill-defined, secondary and unspecified sites
  • Malignant neoplasm without specification of site including excl. leukemia
  • Other, please state
6. Other Information
  • Alcohol
  • Anthropometry
  • Physical exercise
  • Socioeconomic status
  • Smoking
  • Other (specify)
Specify: Other
  Smoking, alcohol, BMI and physical activity at an aggregate level from survey data
Possibility for linkage to data registries/data enrichment via data linkage
  • Birth register
  • Cancer incidence
  • Disease specific clinical database
  • Employment status
  • Hospital discharge
  • Medication usage
  • Migration
  • Mortality register
  • Other (specify)
Specify: Other
  All registries with a possibility to link with a personal ID code, with relevant permissions.
Please describe plans that are funded or most likely to be funded
  We are currently working on an update on the previous publication from 2009: Occupation and cancer – follow-up of 15 million people in five Nordic countries (https://doi.org/10.1080/02841860902913546).